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Issue 7 (3) 2008 pp. 15–24

Katarzyna Dzida, Karolina Pitura

The influence of varied nitrogen fertilization on yield and chemical composition of swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla L.)

Abstract: The examinations were aimed at determining the dependence between form and rate of applied nitrogen fertilizer vs. yield and chemical composition of leaves of Swiss chard cultivated in greenhouse in spring. Nitrogen was applied in a form of urea, potassium nitrate, and ammonium nitrate at three amounts: 0.2; 0.4; 0.6 g N·dm-3 of substrate. Following items were assessed: yield, nutrients contents, as well as chemical analyses of substrate after plant harvest were made. Increase of nitrogen rate in objects with potassium nitrate and ammonium nitrate resulted in the decrease of fresh matter yield, while in objects with urea, the yield remained at constant level. The highest yield of above ground parts (356 g·plant-1) was achieved by fertilizing the plants with the lowest nitrogen rate (as ammonium nitrate). Contents of nitrates in leaf dry matter was within the range of 0.59–1.27% depending on nitrogen rate and form. The highest nitrate levels were found when potassium nitrate was applied as fertilizer, whereas the lowest – when applying ammonium nitrate; however, regardless the fertilizer type, higher rates caused the increase of nitrate contents. Studies revealed that at increasing nitrogen concentration in a substrate, level of vitamin C also increased. Contents of N, P, K, Ca, and Mg in Swiss chard’s leaves depended on nitrogen fertilizer type. Comparison of studied factors influence on potassium concentration in plants indicated that increasing nitrogen rates in objects with urea and ammonium nitrate was accompanied by the decrease of this element content. An inverse dependence was recorded in objects with potassium nitrate, where content of potassium in Swiss chard’s leaves increased along with the nitrogen level increase. Application of 0.2 g N· dm-3 substrate appeared to be the most profitable in spring cultivation of Swiss chard, because the largest yields of fresh matter and the lowest share of nitrates in dry matter of studied plant were found.
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Keywords: Swiss chard, nitrogen fertilizer, yield, chemical composition

For citation:

MLA Dzida, Katarzyna, and Karolina Pitura. "The influence of varied nitrogen fertilization on yield and chemical composition of swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla L.)." Acta Sci.Pol. Hortorum Cultus 7.3 (2008): 7.
APA Dzida, K., & Pitura, K. (2008). The influence of varied nitrogen fertilization on yield and chemical composition of swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla L.). Acta Sci.Pol. Hortorum Cultus 7 (3), 7.
ISO 690 DZIDA, Katarzyna, PITURA, Karolina. The influence of varied nitrogen fertilization on yield and chemical composition of swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla L.). Acta Sci.Pol. Hortorum Cultus, 2008, 7.3: 7.
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